G20 Summit 2023: Key Outcomes and Controversies in Delhi”



  • The G20, or Group of Twenty, is an assembly of nations focused on addressing global economic and political issues.
  • G20 countries collectively represent 85% of the world’s economic output and over 75% of world trade, with two-thirds of the global population.
  • The G20 consists of 19 individual nations and the European Union, including countries like the United States, China, India, and Russia.

The African Union’s Membership

  • In September 2023, at the Delhi summit in India, the African Union was invited to become a permanent member of the G20.
  • This move adds representation for 55 African countries at future G20 meetings, broadening the group’s global influence.

What is the G20?

  • Founded in 1999 following the Asian financial crisis, the G20 was initially established as a platform for finance ministers to discuss strategies for restoring economic stability.
  • It has since evolved to address a wider range of global issues, including climate change and sustainable energy.
  • Each year, a different G20 member nation holds the presidency and sets the summit agenda.

Achievements at the Delhi Summit

  • The G20 issued a joint declaration at the Delhi summit condemning the impact of the conflict in Ukraine on global food and energy security, though without explicitly naming Russia.
  • The Ukrainian government expressed disappointment with the declaration and believed that their presence could have provided better insights.
  • A new trade network involving the US, India, Saudi Arabia, and the EU was announced to boost trade between South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe, while countering China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
  • Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi aimed to use the summit to enhance India’s global standing ahead of the upcoming general election.
  • Notably, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin and China’s President Xi Jinping did not attend the summit.

Challenges and Controversies

  • China and Saudi Arabia boycotted a G20 tourism meeting held in Indian-administered Kashmir due to territorial disputes involving Kashmir between India and Pakistan.
  • A territorial dispute arose between India and China before the summit when China released a map claiming territories like Arunachal Pradesh and the Aksai Chin plateau as Chinese territory.

Past G20 Summit Achievements

  • Earlier G20 summits in 2008 and 2009 led to significant agreements to stabilize the global economic system.
  • However, subsequent summits faced challenges, often due to tensions between major world powers.

Security Concerns at G20 Summits

  • G20 summits typically attract anti-globalization protests, necessitating heightened security measures.
  • India implemented extensive security measures for the Delhi summit, including road closures and deploying 130,000 security officials.
  • Unconventional methods, such as efforts to deter local monkey populations from disrupting the summit, were also employed.

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